Hernia (Abdominal Hernia)


What is an abdominal hernia?

An abdominal hernia occurs when a device or other piece of tissue emerges from weakness in one of the muscle walls that surround the abdominal cavity. The sac that protrudes through the weak area may contain a portion of the intestine or fatty lining of the colon (thrombus) if the hernia occurs in the abdominal or femoral wall. If the hernia occurs through the diaphragm, the muscle that separates the thorax from the abdomen, part of the stomach may be involved.

The abdominal wall is composed of layers of different muscles and tissues. Weak points can develop in these layers to allow the contents of the abdominal cavity or hernia to emerge. The most common abdominal hernia (hernia), the diaphragm (hernia) and the abdominal button (navel). The hernia can be present at birth (congenital), or it can develop at any later time (acquired).


What are the different types of abdominal hernia?


Hernia in the abdomen and pelvis

Ectopic hernia is the most common abdominal hernia. The inguinal canal is an opening that allows the seminal cord and the testicle to descend from the abdomen to the scrotum with the development of the embryo and mature. After the testicle recedes, it is assumed that the opening closes tightly, but sometimes the muscles attached to the pelvis leave a weak area. If later in life stress is exerted in that area, weak tissues may allow part of the small intestine or the bull to slip through this opening, causing pain and swelling. Ectopic hernia is less likely to occur in women because there is no need to open the inguinal canal to allow migration and testicular proportions.

Femoral hernia can occur when the abdominal floor is opened where there is an area of ​​the artery and the femoral vein that passes from the abdomen to the upper part of the leg. Due to the wider bone structure, femoral hernia tends to occur more frequently in women.

The herniated plug is the most common hernia of the pelvic floor. The majority of these cases occur in women who have had multiple pregnancies or have lost weight. The hernia occurs through a catheter channel, another connection from the abdominal cavity to the leg, and contains occlusion of the artery, vein and nervousness.


Hernia of the anterior abdominal wall

The abdominal wall is made up of two muscle groups on each side of the body, which reflect each other. Includes rectal abdominal muscles, internal obelix, external obelix and transfiles.

When an inguinal hernia occurs in babies, it occurs due to weakness in the midline of the abdominal wall, where the two rectus muscles are joined between the sternum and the abdominal button. Sometimes, this weakness does not manifest until later in adult life, as it becomes a bulge in the upper abdomen. The cut of the intestines, fat or ox can get trapped in this type of hernia.

The navel, or umbilical cord, where the umbilical cord joins the embryo of the mother and allows the blood circulation of the fetus. Umbilical hernia causes abnormal abdominal button inflammation and is very common in newborns and often does not need treatment unless complications occur. Some secret hernias enlarge and may require repair later in life.

Spigillian hernia occurs at the outer edges of the ventral and rare abdominal muscle.

Surgical hernia occurs as complications in abdominal surgery, where the abdominal muscles are cut to allow the surgeon to enter the abdominal cavity to work. Although muscle repair is usually done, it becomes a relatively weak area, which allows the abdominal limbs to pierce the incision.

Straight dystasia is not a true hernia but rather a weakening of the membrane where the rectal muscles of the right and left are together, causing inflammation in the midline. It differs from the chrysalis hernia due to, and the metastasis does not trap intestines, fat or other organs within it.


Hernias of the diaphragm

Diaphragmatic hernia occurs when a part of the slices is prepared through a hole in the diaphragm where the esophagus passes through the chest into the abdomen. Hiatal hernia is the most common type and occurs when the lower esophagus and parts of the stomach are prepared through the diaphragm in the thorax. Esophageal hernias occur when the stomach is only released in the chest along with the esophagus. This can lead to serious complications of blockage or stomach swerving (restlessness).

Herniated hernia can occur due to a large injury where severe trauma weakens or breaks the muscles of the diaphragm allowing an immediate hernia or delays the abdominal organs in the thoracic cavity. This can also occur after a shock rupture from a stab wound or a bullet wound. This hernia usually involves the left diaphragm because the liver, located below the right diaphragm, tends to protect it from the intestinal hernia.

Congenital hernias are rare and are caused by the failure of the diaphragm to form and close completely during fetal development. This can lead to a failure of the lung to mature completely, which leads to a lower lung function if the abdominal organs migrate in the chest. The most common type is a buccadalal hernia on the lateral border of the diaphragm. Morgagny’s hernia is more rare and even the front part of the diaphragm fails.

What causes abdominal hernia?

The hernia can be congenital and present at birth or develop over time in areas of weakness within the abdominal wall. The increase in pressure within the abdominal cavity can cause stress in the weaknesses and allows parts of the abdominal cavity or hernia to appear.

Increased intra-abdominal pressure can occur in a variety of cases, including chronic cough, increased fluid within the abdominal cavity (ascites), peritoneal kidney used to treat renal washout failure, tumors or masses in the abdomen. Stress may increase due to excess weight, pressure to pass or urinate, or trauma to the abdomen. Pregnancy or extra weight in the abdomen and neck are also factors that can cause hernia.

What are the risk factors for a catheter?

The increase in abdominal pressure can cause the weakening of a part of the abdominal wall, either abruptly or gradually over time. Some risk factors include:


  • Chronic constipation.
  •  Chronic cough
  •  Frequent vomiting
  •  Obesity
  •  Asthma (abnormal group of fluid in the abdominal cavity).
  •   Peritoneal dialysis
  •   Abdominal bulges
  •   To download.
  •  Abdominal surgery (risk of surgical hernia).
  •  Move frequently or lift heavy objects.


What are the signs and symptoms of an abdominal hernia?

Most people may feel a lump where the inguinal hernia develops in the groin. There may be acute or sharp pain IQ in the area due to inflammation of the inguinal nerve or sensation of fullness in the thigh with activity. If a hernia occurs due to an event such as lifting a heavy weight, you may feel severe pain or watery eyes. However, many people have no other complaint of feeling full in the inguinal canal area.

Complications occur when a piece of intestine or bladder is trapped (imprisoned) in the hernia sac. A piece of intestine can enter the hernia and get stuck. If the intestines swell, it can cause a surgical emergency as they lose their blood supply and drown. In this case, there may be great pain, nausea and vomiting, suggesting the possibility of developing intestinal obstruction. Fever may be associated with the dead bowel and mixed.

Richter hernia is an uncommon type of hernia that leads to suffocation. Only part of the intestinal wall is trapped in the hernia. It will not necessarily cause a complete obstruction at the beginning, because the intestinal passage still allows the intestinal contents to pass, but this part of the trapped intestinal wall can suffocate and die.

The hernia and the femoral stump are present almost in the same way as the inguinal hernia, although its anatomical position, and its fullness or lumps can be very difficult to appreciate.

The umbilical hernia is easy to appreciate and the older person often goes out without increasing abdominal pressure. Complications again include confinement and strangulation.

Diaphragmatic hernia does not cause many symptoms in itself, but when the sliding hernia occurs, the abnormal location of the gastric (GI) intersection above the diaphragm affects the function and stomach contents may reflux into the esophagus. GERD (Jared) can cause chest pain, epigastric pain and burning in the upper part of the abdominal nausea, vomiting, and acid taste of the stomach acid that is washed in the back of the throat.

A sports hernia is a tear or strain of any tissue in the lower abdomen or thigh. It causes pain in the groin or groin. It can involve any soft tissue, including muscles, tendons or ligaments, and physical activity can begin, which usually involves torsion or shock force of trauma to the abdomen.

What types of medical professionals treat and repair hernias?


Very often, primary caregivers are the first to diagnose and treat the hernia. For diaphragmatic hernia, usually medical, non-surgical, is needed to care for and control the symptoms of GERD is the main goal. Sometimes, a gastrointestinal doctor will participate in the care to assess the severity of GERD. Some diaphragm detachments do not require surgery, general surgery and / or a chest surgeon performs the operation, depending on where the organs are in the stomach or chest and the size of the defect in the diaphragm.

While primary care providers diagnose the abdominal wall hernia, it is the general surgeon who performs the operation and repairs the hernia.

When the hernia becomes a prison, the patient often goes to the emergency department and the doctor makes a diagnosis and, sometimes, the hernia can be placed (cut). If the hernia is reduced, referral as an outpatient to the general surgeon may be an option. If the hernia is still trapped (imprisoned) or if there is concern that the hernia is strangulated, an immediate consultation with a surgeon is required.

Hernia is often identified in the neonatal period by a pediatrician or family provider in the maternity ward or neonatal nursery. You can consult the child surgeons to evaluate them.

How do health professionals diagnose abdominal hernias?

For inguinal hernia, most patients notice a feeling of fullness or mass in the area of ​​the thigh with pain and burning. The physical examination can usually confirm the diagnosis. The removal of the hernia or femur is more difficult to evaluate and the symptoms of recurrent pelvic or pelvic pain without clear results of the physical examination may require a CT scan to detect the diagnosis. The secret hernia is much easier to locate with a bulging abdominal button.

Hernias that are imprisoned or drowned are a major challenge since the potential complications of the dead intestine increase the urgency. The health professional looks for evidence of obstacles, including a history of pain, nausea, vomiting or fever. During the physical examination, the doctor can often discover that the patient has a significantly sensitive belly. These hernias are often tender and firm. The examination may be sufficient for suspicion of imprisonment or strangulation and requires an immediate consultation with the surgeon. Doctors can use X-rays or CT scans to confirm the diagnosis, depending on the clinical situation.

Doctors can diagnose esophageal hernia by knowing the patient’s medical history during the physical examination. The chest chest can reveal part of the stomach inside the chest. If there is concern about complications that include esophageal reflux (esophagus), ulcers, or bleeding, you may need a gastrointestinal tract to perform an endoscopy.

What types of surgery is the repair of a hernia?


Erectal hernia repair is one of the most common surgeries performed in the United States with nearly one million operations that occur each year. Most hernias of the abdominal wall are selectively fixed when the patient’s health can be maximized to reduce the risk of both surgery and anesthesia.

Surgery to repair the hernia can use a laparoscope or an open procedure called hernia hernia, where the surgeon repairs the hernia directly through the incision in the abdominal wall. The type of operation depends on the clinical situation and the urgency of the surgery. A decision about which operation to perform depends on the patient’s clinical situation.

The other hernia of the abdominal wall can also be repaired in a similar way to promote imbalance in the abdominal wall and reduce the risk of intestinal obstruction and complications of strangulation.

Surgical hernias can be treated surgically to reposition the stomach in the abdominal cavity and promote gastric attachment. However, doctors usually do not offer surgery because most of the symptoms are due to GERD and medical treatment is usually enough. Drugs, diet, lifestyle change, weight loss can help control symptoms and reduce the need for surgery.

The esophageal hernia is fixed to prevent complications of strangulation or thrombosis.

What non-surgical treatments are available for the abdominal belly?

If the hernia or umbilical hernia is small and does not cause symptoms, a pleasant wait approach may be reasonable. Routine follow-up may be all that is required, especially if the hernia does not increase in size. However, if the hernia does not grow or if there is concern about a possible arrest, it can be.


Is it possible to prevent an abdominal hernia?

Although congenital hernia can not be prevented, the risk of developing a hernia that occurs with the passage of life may be minimal. The goal is to avoid increasing abdominal pressure that can stress weak areas of the abdominal wall.


  • Keep a healthy weight. 
  • Eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly to reduce the risk of constipation and stress to evacuate the bowel. 
  • Use proper lifting techniques, especially when trying to lift heavy objects. This is important to remember at work, home and sports. 
  • Stop smoking to reduce recurrent cough. 
  • If the hernia develops, seek medical attention to evaluate it and treat it before it becomes too large or is in prison.

Leave A Reply

Your email address will not be published.